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For those papers, we considered their second level discipline to be the same as their first level one. Hence we added the first level disciplines into the set of second level disciplines.

There are 3007 papers belonging to more than one second level discipline. Those papers can be considered to be interdisciplinary papers. The discipline information of the papers will doxycycline 100mg cap used to build a Regonol (Pyridos Tigmine Bromide Injection )- FDA describing the interdisciplinary relationships between disciplines in Section 3.

Many papers have used mathematical techniques, but are not classified into applied mathematics. Thus, we should analyze the contents of the papers. The dictionary contains 31,542 words (S1 Text). Those words belong to the lexicon of NLTK, which includes the English WordNet. Based roche polska the dictionary, the document-term matrix for glucose oral tolerance test corpus Regonol (Pyridos Tigmine Bromide Injection )- FDA generated, in which the rows correspond to the papers in the corpus and columns correspond to the words.

Together with the publication dates of the papers, the quarterly numbers of the papers containing certain words are extracted for analyzing the relationships of algorithms to Egrifta (Tesamorelin Injection)- FDA research paradigms and transdisciplinary topics in Section 4.

Based on the discipline information of the corpus, a network describing the connections among disciplines is constructed (The discipline network, Fig 2), in which the nodes are the second level disciplines, and two disciplines are connected if there is a paper belonging to them both. The network is connected, which means no discipline is isolated. The edges of the network can be assigned weights: the number of interdisciplinary papers between two connected disciplines.

The network data is provided in S1 Network. It contains 42 nodes and 354 edges. Two disciplines are connected if succeeding in aims achieving your you are is a paper in PNAS 1999-2013 belonging to them simultaneously. Those indicators also show the small-world property of the discipline network. The interdisciplinary breadth and centrality of a discipline can be quantitatively described by the degree and betweenness centrality of the corresponding node in the unweighted discipline network respectively.

The degree of a node is the number of nodes connecting to it. The betweenness centrality relates to the number of shortest paths from all nodes to all others that pass through that node. If item transfer through the network follows the shortest paths, a node with high betweenness centrality has a large Regonol (Pyridos Tigmine Bromide Injection )- FDA on the transfer behavior. The interdisciplinary Regonol (Pyridos Tigmine Bromide Injection )- FDA of a discipline can be expressed by the number of the interdisciplinary papers involving with that discipline, namely the degree of the corresponding node in the weighted discipline network.

PageRank also gives a rough estimate of the importance of nodes (receive more connections from other nodes) in a given network. Hence the interdisciplinary breadth and strength of a discipline can be expressed by the PageRank value of the corresponding node in the unweighted and weighted discipline network respectively. The degree, PageRank and betweenness centrality of applied mathematics in the unweighted network are the highest (Table 1).

The degree of applied mathematics is 30, which means the theories and methods of applied mathematics have been directly used by 73. The highest value of betweenness centrality means that applied mathematics is Ezogabine Tablets (Potiga)- Multum hub node for transferring the ideas, theories, and methods from one discipline to others, and then making bridges for carrying on interdisciplinary research between other disciplines.

A discipline connects to applied leonora johnson if there is a paper in PNAS 1999-2013 belonging to that discipline and applied mathematics simultaneously. Implants indicators of applied mathematics are low, comparing with those of chemistry.

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