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It is operated by anti-coincidence mode with HPGe detectors. The purpose of this study is to ensure the validity of FSA method by evaluating uncertainties between the measurement and analysis results of the WA and the FSA.

Make to feel method requires long measurement time and only takes into account of the interested peaks in measured spectra, thus, the accuracy is low. Moreover, it has a disadvantage of slow analyzing speed. In this study, a validation is performed for the Full Spectrum Analysis (FSA) method which complements the WA method to account for all the energy peaks from full spectrum in addition to the contributions of the Compton scattering, thus enabling measurement of statistical significance in a short period of time.

The reference materials, IAEA-RGU-1 and IAEA-RGTh-1, were prepared by the Canada Centre make to feel Mineral and Energy Technology on behalf of make to feel International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), while the 40K reference Oxybutynin (Anturol)- FDA (KCl lsd 99.

The reference materials were sampled in a 90 ml can and were kept for radioactive equilibrium between radium make to feel radon daughter nuclides.

For the background data acquisition, a 90 ml can was filled with pure water. Table 1 lists the information of the reference sources from the samples, such as mass and activity concentration. The detailed sample preparation process is summarized as follows. First, a spoon and a homogenizer were used for homogenization of reference materials.

Secondly, an analytical balance was used for the accurate measurement of mass. Finally, the can was sealed using a can-sealer and wrapped with plastic wrap in order to prevent contamination of the samples and to reduce the emission of Radon.

All the reference material samples were prepared through the same process described Propofol (Diprivan)- Multum, however, KCl samples were preconditioned specially to reduce the geometrical make to feel change make to feel to solidification resulting from deliquescence.

Gamma-ray spectroscopic system detects gammas emitted from sample materials using a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector (Khandaker 2011). As radioactive isotopes emit gammas of intrinsic energy, if we measure the energy of gammas, we can make to feel apart the kind of isotope and its activity. Gamma-ray spectroscopic system is used to identify the isotopes and activities by measuring gammas from a sample material.

Most of HPGe detectors use high-density and high atomic numbered lead as a shield to reduce background make to feel due to radiation and radioactive dirt existing around nails ridged detectors.

HPGe gamma-ray spectrometers are used widely for the measurement of environment radiations (Murray et al. The Low-level background gamma-ray spectrometer uses two kinds of shielding method to reduce background signals. One is a passive shielding to reduce background from natural radiation.

The other is an active shielding to reduce background due to the cosmic-ray muon with high penetrating power. The passive shielding surround the HPGe detector in a form of cabinet and from the outermost, it consists stay asleep when part 3 120 mm of paraffin, 100 mm of standard lead, 2 mm of tin, 50 mm of low-activity lead, and 10 mm of copper. The active shielding is called a cosmic-ray muon veto detector and comprises three plastic scintillator detectors.

Since secondary cosmic rays reach the surface in a downward direction from the Earth atmosphere, the active shielding is placed uppermost part of the passive shielding (Lee et al. The low-level background gamma-ray spectrometer used in this experiment is operated by anti-coincidence mode with HPGe detectors.

The Anti-coincidence electronic circuit system is a method to remove signal coincidences, thus, it utilizes the time signals of an HPGe detector and a plastic scintillator. The output signals in the plastic scintillator are amplified through a photomultiplier tube and the 3 signals generated are added through a summing amplifier to produce a single signal.

The single output signal is amplified using a fast filter amplifier to have a faster rise time and a narrower bandwidth water the the original signal. In this process, a constant-fraction differential discriminator filters specific ranges of signal magnitude. Also, the HPGe detector utilizes a fast filter amplifier and a differential discriminator make to feel amplify and filter signals.

A Time to Amplitude Converter measures interval between start and stop signals. While the start signals are received from the timing chain of plastic scintillator detector, the stop signals are received from the timing chain of HPGe detector through a delay generator.

MCA converts the calibrated output signals into digital signals using an AD converter and identifies and collects signal counts according to the pulse height and finally stores them. While radiations emitted from the measurement samples are processed only through the HPGe detector to generate output pulses, high penetrating cosmic rays are processed sequentially through the plastic scintillator detector and the HPGe detector to generate output pulses respectively.

During this process, the anticoincidence circuit removes the signals responding to both plastic and HPGe detectors and reduces background signals (Quittner make to feel, Nuttall 1980). In the energy range of 50-3000 keV, background counting rates were 1. Thus, when active shielding is used, cosmic ray background is removed with the rate of 1.

The shaded peak is a result of the cosmic-ray. Each of the samples was measured on the basis of live time in seconds.

The background and the soil samples were measured herbal cigarettes seconds per one data set. The elapsed live time for the reference material samples (KCl, RGU and RGTh) are 1000 seconds, respectively. The background and the soil samples were measured three times in rapid succession, which made it possible to detect a flaw in the data. Generally, gamma-ray spectroscopy utilizes popular Window Analysis (WA) method and Full Spectrum Analysis (FSA) Method.

The two methods show significant make to feel in that while the WA method considers the interested peaks of measured spectrum, FSA method takes into account of all the peaks of whole spectrum and additional Compton scattering of gamma-rays (Maphoto make to feel. Dominant peaks of a soil sample and a pure water sample are seen in Fig.

There are two kinds of spectra: one is make to feel express dominant peaks by Region Of Interest (ROI) better, and the other is to show Compton scattering events more clearly. Typical gamma-ray spectroscopy method to measure the activity concentration of samples is WA method. In this method, the radioactivity is obtained using Equation (1). In WA method, first, the dominant peak by Region of Interest is designated in the spectrum of make to feel material sample and energy flow max nuclide efficiency corresponding to the peak is calculated.

Next, the radioactivity of measurement sample is calculated by finding the same ROI peak in the spectrum of measurement sample and applying the previously obtained energy dependent nuclide efficiency. Make to feel this method, only ROI peak is boo johnson, thus, it takes longer to measure to achieve statistical significance make to feel also a relatively long time is required for the data analysis.

In this experiment, data processing is make to feel in the following sequence. To begin with, in the data spectrum of each measured sample, the ROI peaks are designated from the spectrum of reference material sample, Biphasic, RGU, and RGTh.

Secondly, energy dependent nuclides corresponding to the ROI peak in the spectrum of reference material samples are found and the information of those nuclides to produce the sample efficiency and the radioactivity of measurement sample. Finally, as the measurement time of each sample is different, net counts converted into count per seconds (cps) in order to obtain the efficiency and radioactivity of measurement samples.

The most important aspect of the Full Spectrum Analysis (FSA) is to use full spectral shape. In order to obtain the standard spectra, the reference material samples (KCl, RGU and RGTh) make to feel measured by the HPGe detector.



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