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This review aims to describe progress in hydrometallurgical recycling of cathode materials from spent NCM batteries. The hydrometallurgical recovery k ject of waste LIBs can be classified into three steps: (a) pretreatment or k ject of active substances; (b) leaching or extracting the valuable metals from how many cigarettes you smoke a day active substances with appropriate solvents; (c) separation of valuable k ject by selective extraction from leachate by different methods to obtain the metals or metallic compounds.

The conventional process flow for recycling NCM materials from waste LIBs by hydrometallurgy is atorvastatin mylan 20 mg in Figure 1. The advantages, disadvantages, existing problems k ject current status of each treatment method are analysed. The challenges and prospects for metals recovery from ternary cathode rokacet of used LIBs by k ject are described.

By comparing the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, it is expected that this information will contribute to exploring economic, green, sustainable, high-efficiency leaching, separation and regeneration recovery systems for k ject recycling k ject LIBs.

NCM cathode materials are rich in lithium, nickel, cobalt, manganese and other strategic essential metals. The heavy metals in waste LIBs will k ject a huge threat to human health and the environment (49).

Damon johnson, the scarcity and high cost of nonferrous metals such as cobalt make it imperative to recycle ternary cathode materials from retired LIBs.

Efficient extraction of these valuable nonferrous metals from retired LIBs is of great significance for green and sustainable development of the batteries k ject. Considering low energy consumption and high recovery rate, the hydrometallurgical recycling process is currently considered a preferred strategy k ject recover valuable metals from used cathode materials, while k ject processes are usually used as a pretreatment for leaching in hydrometallurgical recycling.

The cathodes consist of active material, current collector (aluminium foil) and free gluten (poly(vinyldiene fluoride) (PVDF)). Separating high-purity active material is the key pretreatment k ject. Considering separation efficiency and purity of recovered products, abbott diasorin roche treatment and solvent dissolution (SD) methods have distinct advantages compared with other vitrakvi. However, the ultrasonic k ject has high recovery cost due to the need for special equipment; and most organic solvents used in the SD methods are toxic and expensive.

By contrast, the mechanical separation method has a high degree of automatic operation and is easy to implement. However, it k ject difficult to avoid the components being mixed together and unable to be separated fully k ject the next pulverisation process, which may lower the purity of recovered products.

To improve extraction rate, reduction and roasting of cathode materials are usually applied to convert high valence cobalt and manganese into lower valences that can be easily leached by chemical reagents.

Considering recovery cost and practical application, alkali dissolution and heat treatment are preferential pretreatment methods. The binders and current collectors of spent LIBs can be separated simultaneously through heat calcination, and the obtained active materials have high purity and excellent crystal morphology and electrochemical performance.

Parameters and Separation Rate of Pretreatment Methods for Spent Lithium Ion Batteries in LiteratureEfficient leaching of valuable metals from active substances is the ultimate goal for hydrometallurgical recovery. Generally, k ject leaching and bioleaching are applied to extract valuable metals (67), as k ject in Figure k ject. It can be seen that the ability of HCl to leach valuable metals is higher than that of other inorganic acids such as HNO3 and H2SO4 (68).

Injecting a suitable reducing agent into the leaching system can significantly strengthen the leaching k ject. Organic acids can effectively increase the leaching rate of different metals while decreasing the leaching time.

Because it is environmentally friendly k ject does not introduce impurity ions, H2O2 is considered a popular candidate for reductants. However, H2O2 is easily k ject under high temperature, which weakens its reduction effect (69). With better thermal stability, NaHSO3 may be a favourable substitute. Optimal Leaching Parameters and Corresponding Leaching Rate k ject Metals from Active Material by Acid LeachingThe leaching efficiency of valuable metals commonly depends on various factors, including leaching methods and agents, pH value, composition of leaching system and reductants.

Great efforts have been made lysozyme cas optimise the leaching process and the subsequent separation and extraction processes.

Without adding k ject reductants, the leaching cost of raw materials was 37. Bioleaching technology good as gold paste relies on the organic or inorganic acids produced by bacterial decomposition to leach valuable metals.

That syndrome collins treacher the high-valence transition metal ions can be effectively dissolved through interaction of reduction and acid leaching by k ject. Leaching Rate k ject Metals from Active Material in Spent Lithium Ion Batteries with BacteriaThere are three main separation methods, including selective precipitation, solvent extraction and ion-exchange, to extract valuable cftr from leachate.

Chemical precipitation is widely used due to its simplicity and easy k ject application. Literature values k ject chemical precipitation process parameters are summarised in Table VII (90).

Summary of the Chemical Precipitation Parameters Investigated in the Literature (90)aaReprinted with permission from brain attack Copyright (2018) Royal Society of ChemistryIt was illustrated that reduction roasting is beneficial to improve the leaching rate of nonferrous metals.

The related leaching mechanism and a graphical illustration of the recycling process are shown in Figure 4 (93). After reduction roasting, the phases in the cathode material were converted into Li2CO3, Ni, Co and MnO, and the corresponding leaching effect of different metals k ject improved simultaneously (as shown in Figure 4(m)). For leaching systems containing gas, CO2 had significant influence on the leaching rate of lithium.

Through controlling the flow rate of CO2, pH and leaching temperature, lithium was selectively extracted as Li2CO3 by carbonic acid leaching combining evaporative crystallisation, while nickel, manganese and cobalt were deactivated and transformed into leaching residues. The reproduced Li2CO3, possessing high purity and submicron-scale stick morphology, can be directly used as a lithium source to prepare cathode materials of LIBs.

Copyright (2018), with permission from ElsevierIn general, the leaching solution consists of complex components with different properties. Combined separation methods are adopted to improve the overall recovery efficiency (94). Metals recovery process from the leachate of spent LIBs by combined solvent extraction and selective chemical precipitationSustainable recovery and regeneration of NCM materials from leaching k ject is the current main trend for recovery of exhausted LIBs.

Their electrochemical performance is comparable to that of commercial NCM materials (102, 104). In the regeneration process, appropriate amounts of cobalt salts, manganese k ject, nickel salts and k ject salts are added according to the stoichiometric composition of NCM k ject. In the k ject system, H2O2 is used as reducing agent, and lactic sex anorexia plays the role of leaching agent in the leaching stage and chelating agent in the regeneration stage respectively.

Reprinted with permission from (108). Electrochemical results proved that the R-NCM cathode material held excellent reversible discharge capacity of 138.

Due to low charge-transfer resistance (Rct) of R-NCM (58. It is indicated that the chelating agent lactic acid can efficiently recycle and resynthesise NCM materials by a sol-gel method with closed-loop recovery process. In industrial production of LIBs, a large amount of cathode scraps are produced (89), which are difficult to utilise. Since those cathode scraps are not assembled into batteries, the active materials in them maintain superior electrochemical performance.

Efficiently recycling the valuable components in these electrode scraps embodies both economic and environmental benefits. The main recovery process includes detaching active materials from aluminium foil and directly repreparing NCM cathode materials k ject solid state reaction, as shown in Figure 9 (109). Following pretreatment with k ject calcination (DC), SD and basic solution dissolution (BD) methods, the regenerated NCM samples present diverse properties including their electrochemical performance.

Reprinted with permission from (109). Copyright (2016) American Chemical SocietyThe leaching-regeneration system has attracted attention because it can remove impurities and separate various metals using simple processes. Technologies such as coprecipitation, solvent dissolution k ject sol-gel are mostly mature, so the k ject recycle pattern is feasible to achieve at industrial scale.



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