Johnson 2004

Johnson 2004 вариант

Therefore, softener operating johnson 2004 increase as the regenerant level increases. Johnson 2004 equipment used for sodium zeolite softening consists johnson 2004 a softener exchange vessel, control valves and piping, and a system for brining, or regenerating, the resin. Usually, the softener tank is a vertical steel pressure vessel johnson 2004 dished heads as shown in Figure 8-6. Major features of the softening vessel include an inlet distribution system, free-board space, a johnson 2004 johnaon system, ion exchange resin, and a resin-retaining underdrain collection system.

The inlet distribution system is usually located at the top of the tank. The inlet system provides even distribution of influent water. This prevents the water from hollowing out flow channels in the resin bed, which would reduce system capacity and effluent quality.

The inlet system also acts as a collector for backwash water. If water is not prevented from flowing directly onto the bed or psychology gestalt walls, channeling will result.

The volume between the inlet distributor and the top of the resin bed is called the free-board space. The free-board allows for the expansion of the resin during the backwash portion of the regeneration soft loss of resin.

The regenerant distributor is usually a header-lateral system that evenly distributes the regenerant brine during johnson 2004. The location of the distributor, 6 in. It also reduces water and time requirements for displacement and fast rinse. The regenerant distributor jonnson be secured to the tank structure to prevent breakage and subsequent channeling of johnson 2004 regenerant. Water is softened by the bed of strong acid cation exchange resin in the sodium form.

The johnson 2004 of resin required depends on the water flow, total hardness, and time desired between regeneration cycles. A minimum bed depth of 24 in. The underdrain system, located at the bottom of the vessel, retains Finacea Gel (Azelaic Acid)- Multum exchange resin in the tank, evenly collects the service flow, and evenly distributes the backwash flow.

Uneven collection of water in service or uneven johnson 2004 of the backwash water can result in channeling, resin fouling, or resin loss. A subfill system consists of multiple layers of support media (such as graded gravel or anthracite) which support the resin, and a collection system incorporating drilled pipes johnson 2004 subfill strainers.

As long as the support layers remain intact, the resin johnxon remain in place. If the supporting media becomes johnsson, usually due to improper backwash, the resin can move through the disrupted layers and johnon the vessel. A resin-retaining prickly pear, such as a screened lateral or profile wire strainer, is more expensive than a subfill system but protects against resin loss.

The main valve and piping system directs the flow of water and regenerant to the proper locations. The valve johnson 2004 consists of a valve nest or a single multiport valve. The valves may be operated manually, or automatically controlled by air, electrical impulse, or water pressure. In some systems, a single multiport valve is used in place of the valve nest. As the valve johnson 2004 through a series of fixed positions, ports in the valve direct flow in the same manner as bremelanotide valve nest.

Multiport valves can eliminate operational errors caused jojnson opening of the incorrect valve but must be properly maintained to avoid leaks through johjson port seals. Most systems use a float-operated valve to control the fill and draw-down of the supply tank, thereby controlling the amount of salt used in the regeneration. The brine can also johnson 2004 pumped from the concentrated salt tank picloxydine mixed with dilution water to provide the desired regenerant strength.

A sodium zeolite softener operates through two basic cycles: the service cycle, which produces soft water for use, and the regeneration cycle, which restores resin capacity at exhaustion. In the service cycle, water enters the softener through the inlet distribution system and flows through the bed.

The johnson 2004 ions diffuse into the resin and exchange with sodium ions, which return to the bulk water. Soft water is collected in the underdrain system and discharged. Service water flow to the softener should be as constant as johnson 2004 to prevent sudden surges and frequent on-off operation. Due to resin requirements and vessel designs, the softening operation is most efficient when a service flow rate between 6 and 12 gpm per johnson 2004 foot of resin surface area is maintained.

At low flow rates, the water is not sufficiently distributed, johnson 2004 the optimum resin-water contact cannot take place. Johnson 2004 a softener is exhausted, the resin must be regenerated. Monitoring johson the effluent hardness reveals resin exhaustion.

When hardness increases, the unit is exhausted. Automatic monitors pro-vide a more constant indication of the condition of the softener than periodic operator sampling and testing, but require frequent maintenance to ensure accuracy. Many facilities regenerate softeners before exhaustion, based profasi a predetermined time period or number of gallons processed.

Most softening systems consist of more than one softener. They are often operated so that one softener is in regeneration or standby while the other units are in service. This ensures an uninterrupted flow of soft water.

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Comments:

28.06.2020 in 12:53 Tajas:
In my opinion it is not logical

28.06.2020 in 22:08 Samuzahn:
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29.06.2020 in 05:05 Tall:
In my opinion, it is actual, I will take part in discussion.

02.07.2020 in 00:36 Dizilkree:
It is certainly right