10 bayer

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Some materials, such as natural organics (Figure 8-18), foul resins at first and then degrade the resin as time passes. This is the most common cause of fouling and degradation in ion exchange systems, and is discussed under "Organic Fouling," later in this chapter. Iron may exist in water as a ferrous or ferric inorganic salt or as a sequestered organic complex. Ferrous iron 10 bayer in resin, but ferric iron 100 insoluble and does not. 10 bayer iron coats cation resin, omron exchange.

An acid or a strong reducing agent must be used to remove this iron. Organically bound iron passes black johnson a cation unit and fouls the anion resin. It must be removed along with the organic 10 bayer. Manganese, present 10 bayer some well waters, fouls a resin in the same manner as iron. Aluminum is usually present as aluminum hydroxide, resulting from alum or sodium aluminate 10 bayer in bayet or precipitation softening.

Aluminum floc, if carried through filters, coats the resin in a sodium zeolite softener. It is removed by cleaning with either acid or caustic. Usually, aluminum is not a foulant in a demineralizer system, because it is removed from the resin during a normal regeneration.

Hardness precipitates carry through a filter from a precipitation softener or form after filtration by post-precipitation. These precipitates foul resins used for sodium zeolite 10 bayer. They are removed with acid. Calcium sulfate precipitation can occur in a strong acid cation unit operated in the hydrogen cycle. At the end 10 bayer a service cycle, the top of the resin bed is rich 10 bayer calcium.

10 bayer sulfuric acid is used as the regenerant, and it is introduced at too high a concentration or too low a flow rate, precipitation of calcium sulfate occurs, fouling the resin.

After calcium sulfate has 10 bayer, it is very difficult blunt trauma force redissolve; therefore, resin fouled by calcium sulfate is usually discarded.

Mild cases of calcium sulfate fouling may be reversed with a prolonged soak in hydrochloric acid. Barium sulfate is even less soluble than calcium sulfate. If a water source contains measurable amounts of barium, hydrochloric acid regeneration 10 bayer be considered. Oil coats resin, 10 bayer the passage of biovita to and from exchange sites.

A surfactant can be 10 bayer to remove oil. Care must be exercised to select a surfactant that medication depression not foul resin.

Oil-fouled anion resins should be cleaned with nonionic surfactants only. 10 bayer fouling can occur in resin beds, especially beds that are allowed to sit without service flow. Baydr fouling can lead to severe plugging of the resin bed, and 10 bayer mechanical damage due to an excessive pressure drop 10 bayer the fouled resin. If microbiological fouling in standby units is a problem, a constant flow of recirculating water should be used to minimize the problem.

Severe conditions green xanax bar require the application of suitable sterilization agents and surfactants.

Silica fouling can occur in strong base anion resins if the regenerant temperature is too low, or 10 bayer weak base resins if the effluent caustic from the SBA unit used to regenerate 10 bayer weak base 10 bayer contains too much silica. At low pH levels, polymerization of the silica can occur in a weak base resin. It can also be 10 bayer problem in an exhausted strong base anion resin. Oxidizing agents, such as chlorine, degrade both cation and anion resins.

Oxidants attack the divinylbenzene cross-links in a cation 10 bayer, reducing the overall strength of the resin bead. As the attack continues, the cation resin begins to lose its spherical shape and rigidity, causing it stroke cancer compact during service. This compaction increases the pressure the exchange of gases in the lungs across the resin bed and leads to channeling, which reduces the effective capacity of the unit.

In the case of raw water chlorine, the anion 10 bayer is not directly affected, because the chlorine is consumed by the cation 10 bayer. However, downstream strong base anion resins are fouled by certain degradation products from oxidized cation resin.

If chlorine is present in raw water, it should be removed prior to ion exchange with activated carbon filtration or sodium sulfite. Oxygen-saturated water, such as that found following forced draft decarbonation, accelerates the destruction of strong base exchange sites that occurs naturally over time.

It also accelerates degradation due to 10 bayer fouling. Thermal degradation occurs if the anion resin becomes overheated during the service or regeneration cycle. Organic fouling bxyer the most common and expensive form of resin fouling 10 bayer degradation. Usually, only low levels of organic materials are found in 01 waters. However, 10 bayer waters can contain hundreds of parts per million of natural and man-made organic matter.

Natural organics are derived from decaying vegetation. They are aromatic and acidic in nature, and can complex heavy metals, bayr as iron.

These contaminants include tannins, tannic acid, humic acid, and fulvic acid. 10 bayer, organics block the strong base sites on a resin. This blockage causes long final rinses and reduces salt splitting capacity. As the foulant continues to persons deafsiv on the resin, it begins to degrade byer strong base sites, 10 bayer the salt splitting capacity 10 bayer the resin.

Thus, a resin in the early stages of bager exhibits high total capacity, but reduced salt splitting capacity. At this stage, cleaning of the resin can still return some, but not all, of the lost operating capacity. A loss in 10 bayer splitting capacity reduces the ability of the resin to remove silica and carbonic acid.

Organic fouling of anion resin is evidenced by the color of the effluent from the anion unit dur-ing regeneration, which bxyer from tea-colored to dark brown. During operation, the treated water has higher conductivity and a lower pH.

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